Background: Platelets are hyperactive in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and antiplatelet treatment with glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors provides better thrombotic protection in DM than in non-diabetic subjects.
Objective: We hypothesized that diabetic platelets are hyperprocoagulant, and that this hyperactivity can be inhibited by GPIIb/IIIa blockade.
Methods: Patients with T2DM and gender/age/body mass index-matched non-diabetic controls were recruited (n = 12 for both) to study the effect of GPIIb/IIIa blockade on platelet procoagulant activity. Platelet phosphotidylserine (PS), factor (F) Va expression, and platelet-derived microparticle (PDMP) generation were measured by whole blood flow cytometry. Platelet-dependent thrombin generation and plasma clotting time were monitored in recalcified platelet-rich plasma.
Results: Compared to controls, basal platelet activation was similar, while thrombin receptor activating peptide stimulated activation was enhanced in patients with T2DM. Diabetic platelets also displayed more profound elevations of platelet PS exposure, FVa binding, and PDMP generation upon stimulation. These alterations resulted in a hyperprocoagulant state, as evidenced by a marked increase in the platelet procoagulant index, enhanced thrombin generation, and a shortened plasma clotting time. GPIIb/IIIa blockade by c7E3 or SR121566 decreased platelet PS exposure and FVa binding, and diminished platelet procoagulant activity in patients with T2DM.
Conclusions: Platelets have increased procoagulant activity in patients with T2DM. The hyperprocoagulant activity is counteracted by GPIIb/IIIa blockade.