Urban warming trends in several large Asian cities over the last 100 years

Sci Total Environ. 2009 Apr 15;407(9):3112-9. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.09.015. Epub 2008 Nov 6.


In this paper, the long-term trends in surface temperature in several large Asian cities (Seoul, Tokyo, Osaka, Taipei, Manila, Bangkok, and Jakarta) have been analyzed for estimating the effects of urban warming. A new index, E-HII, is proposed: it is the value obtained by subtracting the temperature data of the four grids around the city from the observational temperature data in the city. Osaka shows the largest E-HII, increasing from approximately 2.4 degrees C in 1901 to almost 3 degrees C after 1981. The E-HIIs of Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, have increased by 1 degrees C to 2 degrees C. Jakarta and Bangkok exhibited a lower E-HII. E-HIIs of Manila and Bangkok have been increasing rapidly after 1961.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Cities*
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Greenhouse Effect*
  • Heating*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Urbanization / trends*