Wireless amperometric neurochemical monitoring using an integrated telemetry circuit

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008 Nov;55(11):2628-34. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2008.2001264.


An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order Delta Sigma modulator (Delta Sigma M) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 microm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of approximately 250 fA, approximately 1.5 pA, approximately 4.5 pA, and approximately 17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of +/-5, +/-37, +/-150, and +/-600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 microM wirelessly over a transmission distance of approximately 0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Diamond
  • Dopamine / analysis
  • Electrodes, Implanted
  • Electronics, Medical / instrumentation*
  • Electronics, Medical / methods
  • Electrophysiology / instrumentation*
  • Electrophysiology / methods
  • Humans
  • Microelectrodes
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / instrumentation*
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Telemetry / instrumentation*
  • Telemetry / methods


  • Diamond
  • Dopamine