Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a venereal disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovars L1 to L3. Unlike other anogenital C. trachomatis infections, LGV preferably affects lymphatic tissue after invasion through an epithelial surface. LGV has been considered an exotic tropical disease in Europe. This changed in 2003 as there was an outbreak of LGV in Rotterdam followed by additional reports from other European countries and North America. Most patients were HIV-positive men who presented with proctitis. Most of these patients were infected by C. trachomatis L2b biovar, a variant that was first identified in patients from Amsterdam. This review will address the recent developments of the LGV outbreak in Europe and discuss epidemiology, clinical manifestations, new subtypes of LGV genotypes and appropriate diagnostic measures.