Prognostic models and algorithms in renal cell carcinoma

Urol Clin North Am. 2008 Nov;35(4):613-25; vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2008.07.003.


Although surgical treatment is curative for localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25% of patients present with locally advanced or disseminated disease, and disease will recur systemically in another 20% to 30% of those who have localized disease at presentation. Many clinical, histologic, and molecular factors have been identified that place patients who have localized RCC at greater risk for recurrence and those who have metastatic disease at risk for progression or death. This article reviews the major prognostic factors for RCC and the most commonly used algorithms developed for use before or after nephrectomy and before initiation of systemic therapy. These RCC nomograms allow more accurate counseling of patients regarding their likely clinical course and facilitate treatment planning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery
  • Decision Support Techniques*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nephrectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate


  • Biomarkers, Tumor