Because carnitine has been shown to decrease oxidative stress and improve endothelial cell functioning, we examined the effects of carnitine supplementation on postprandial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress after a high-fat meal. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. Thirty men and women (age 30 +/- 8 year, body mass 72.9 +/- 17.1 kg, body fat 13.0 +/- 6.4%) participated in 2 vascular testing days, each preceded by 3 weeks of supplementation with either 2 g/day of L-Carnitine (L-Carnitine L-Tartrate) or placebo with a 3- to 5-week washout period between trials. Brachial artery FMD in response to 5 minutes of upper arm occlusion and circulating markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in the fasting state and after a standardized high-fat meal. After 3 weeks of supplementation, peak FMD in the fasting state was similar between the carnitine and placebo trials, averaging 6.6%. Peak FMD during the postprandial period decreased to 5.8% at 1.5 hours during placebo and increased to 7.7% during the carnitine trial (n = 30: p = 0.043 for supplement by time interaction effect). This improvement in postprandial vascular function was most dramatic in subjects who showed a decrease in peak FMD in response to the meal (n = 15: p = 0.003 for supplement by time interaction effect). There was a significant increase in postprandial lipemia and plasma interleukin-6 but no effect of supplementation. There were no significant postprandial changes or supplement effects for plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde. In conclusion, consistent with other work showing a beneficial effect of carnitine on vascular function, these findings indicate that carnitine supplementation in healthy individuals improves postprandial FMD after a high-fat meal.