Tissue plasminogen activator treatment of experimental subretinal hemorrhage

Am J Ophthalmol. 1991 Feb 15;111(2):197-204. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)72259-7.


To determine if tissue plasminogen activator, a clot-specific fibrinolytic agent, could eventually be used to assist in the clearance or removal of subretinal hemorrhage, we studied the effect of subretinal injections of tissue plasminogen activator, autologous blood, balanced salt solution, and the combination of either tissue plasminogen activator or balanced salt solution after subretinal injection of autologous blood on retinal morphologic characteristics and clearance of subretinal hemorrhage in the albino rabbit. No morphologic evidence of tissue plasminogen activator toxicity was found in the rabbit retina at a dose of 25 to 50 micrograms/0.1 ml. Subretinal hemorrhage cleared faster after subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator when compared to balanced salt solution (P = .0005) but did not completely prevent overlying retinal degeneration. Both tissue plasminogen activator and balanced salt solution were found to decrease the toxic effects of subretinal blood on the morphologic characteristics of the rabbit retina, and this effect can be explained at least partly by dilution of the subretinal blood.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Injections
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Ophthalmoscopy
  • Photoreceptor Cells / ultrastructure
  • Rabbits
  • Retina / ultrastructure
  • Retinal Hemorrhage / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Sodium Chloride / therapeutic use
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / therapeutic use*


  • Sodium Chloride
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator