Tobacco use and its effects on the periodontium and periodontal therapy

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008 Nov 1;9(7):97-107.


Aim: The purpose of this article is to present a review of the potential biological mechanisms underlying the effects of tobacco smoking on periodontal health and periodontal therapy.

Background: Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis.

Review results: The study of the relationship between periodontal disease and smoking has received increased attention during the last few years. Tobacco smoking has wide spread systemic effects, many of which may provide mechanisms for the increased susceptibility to periodontitis and the poorer response to treatment.

Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a significant risk factor for periodontal disease.

Clinical significance: The role smoking plays in periodontal disease should be considered by clinicians and patients during active periodontal therapy and the oral health maintenance phases of care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Gingiva / blood supply
  • Humans
  • Nicotine / adverse effects
  • Periodontal Diseases / etiology*
  • Periodontal Diseases / immunology
  • Periodontal Diseases / therapy
  • Periodontium / drug effects
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco, Smokeless / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Nicotine