Facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy

Pharm World Sci. 2009 Feb;31(1):32-9. doi: 10.1007/s11096-008-9261-0. Epub 2008 Nov 8.


Objective: To identify and prioritise facilitators for practice change in Spanish community pharmacy.

Setting: Spanish community pharmacies.

Method: Qualitative study. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 15) and pharmacy strategists (n = 18), and the results were examined using the content analysis method. In addition, two nominal groups (seven community pharmacists and seven strategists) were formed to identify and prioritise facilitators. Results of both techniques were then triangulated.

Main outcome measures: Facilitators for practice change.

Results: Twelve facilitators were identified and grouped into four domains (D1: Pharmacist; D2: Pharmacy as an organisation; D3: Pharmaceutical profession; D4: Miscellaneous). Facilitators identified in D1 include: the need for more clinical education at both pre- and post-graduate levels; the need for clearer and unequivocal messages from professional leaders about the future of the professional practice; and the need for a change in pharmacists' attitudes. Facilitators in D2 are: the need to change the reimbursement system to accommodate cognitive service delivery as well as dispensing; and the need to change the front office of pharmacies. Facilitators identified in D3 are: the need for the Spanish National Professional Association to take a leadership role in the implementation of cognitive services; the need to reduce administrative workload; and the need for universities to reduce the gap between education and research. Other facilitators identified in this study include: the need to increase patients' demand for cognitive services at pharmacies; the need to improve pharmacist-physician relationships; the need for support from health care authorities; and the need for improved marketing of cognitive services and their benefits to society, including physicians and health care authorities.

Conclusion: Twelve facilitators were identified. Strategists considered clinical education and pharmacists' attitude as the most important, and remuneration of little importance. Community pharmacists, in contrast, considered remuneration as the most important facilitator for practice change.

MeSH terms

  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Community Pharmacy Services / standards*
  • Education, Pharmacy
  • Fees and Charges
  • Humans
  • Professional Practice / standards*
  • Professional Role
  • Professional-Patient Relations
  • Social Facilitation*
  • Spain