Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):112-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00862.x.


This study compared the effects of ingesting water (WATER), an 8.6% glucose solution (GLU) and an 8.6% glucose+fructose solution (2:1 ratio, GLU+FRU) on gastric emptying (GE), fluid delivery, and markers of hydration status during moderate intensity exercise. Eight male subjects (age=24+/-2 years, weight=74.5+/-1.2 kg, VO2max=62.6+/-2.5 mL/kg/min) performed three 120 min cycling bouts at 61% VO2max. Subjects ingested GLU, GLU+FRU (both delivering 1.5 g/min carbohydrate), or WATER throughout exercise, ingesting 2.1 L. Serial dye dilution measurements of GE were made throughout exercise and subjects ingested 5.00 g of D2O and 150 mg of 13C-acetate at 60 min to obtain measures of fluid uptake and GE, respectively. GLU+FRU resulted in faster rates of deuterium accumulation, an earlier time to peak in the 13C enrichment of expired air and a faster rate of GE compared with GLU. GLU+FRU also attenuated the rise in heart rate that occurred in GLU and WATER and resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion. There was a greater loss in body weight with GLU corrected for fluid intake. These data suggest that ingestion of a combined GLU+FRU solution increases GE and "fluid delivery" compared with a glucose only solution.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Beverages*
  • Breath Tests
  • Citrates / administration & dosage
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Test
  • Fructose / administration & dosage*
  • Gastric Emptying / drug effects
  • Gastric Emptying / physiology*
  • Glucose / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Lactates / blood
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology
  • Physical Endurance / physiology
  • Sodium Citrate
  • Water
  • Weight Loss / physiology
  • Young Adult


  • Citrates
  • Lactates
  • Water
  • Sodium Citrate
  • Fructose
  • Glucose