The transcription factor, NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB) and associated regulatory factors make up a multi-component signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and death, as well as immunity and inflammation. Aberrant NF-kappaB pathway activity is known to be associated with a host of diseases, including immune deficiencies, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. Recent advances in our understanding of the inner workings of the NF-kappaB pathway have led to the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases. In this review, we focus on the regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bcl-3 (B cell leukemia-3), a nuclear member of the IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) family. Both the regulation and the function of Bcl-3 will be discussed.