To investigate the expressions of PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA in normal prostate, benign prostatic glandular hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer (PCa), and to explore the association of PIM-1 and hK2 expressions with PCa progression. The samples were harvested from 37 patients with BPH, 23 patients with PCa, and three with normal prostate tissues. Total RNA was extracted from their prostate tissues and analyzed for PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA levels using SYBR green I-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) assays and Southern blot analysis. The differences of gene expressions were calculated based on standard curve. Quantitative expressions of PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA in normal prostate, BPH, and PCa were 1.05 +/- 0.04, 2.57 +/- 0.74, 4.45 +/- 0.63, and 1.02 +/- 0.03, 2.264 +/- 0.46, 5.905 +/- 0.78, respectively. PIM-1 and hK2 were expressed higher in PCa than those in BPH and normal prostate tissues, the differences among which had statistic significance (P < 0.05). Our results support the hypothesis that PIM-1 and hK2 play a significant role in the growth of PCa and the detection of PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA expressions by QRT-PCR provided more reliable and helpful information on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of PCa.