Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome in humans. The Apc(Min/+) mouse, which expresses a mutant homolog of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, is a model of FAP in humans. Treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) sulindac or celecoxib can suppress polyp development in FAP patients, but responses are generally transient and incomplete. Combination chemoprevention with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and either celecoxib or sulindac was evaluated in the Apc(Min/+) mouse. Combinations of DFMO and either NSAID reduced intestinal tumor number by more than 80% (P < 0.0001) compared to untreated controls. In addition to the dramatic reduction in tumor number, the combination of DFMO and sulindac reduced the development of high-grade intestinal adenomas compared to sulindac alone (P = 0.003). The fraction of high-grade intestinal adenomas remaining after treatment was similar for the combination of DFMO and celecoxib and celecoxib alone. Only combinations of DFMO plus sulindac reduced total intestinal polyamine contents compared to untreated mice. These data support the rationale for treatment of FAP patients postcolectomy with DFMO combined with either celecoxib or sulindac but indicate that sulindac may be more effective than celecoxib in reducing intestinal polyamine contents and the incidence of high-grade intestinal adenomas when combined with DFMO.