Basic and escalating immunomodulatory treatments in multiple sclerosis: current therapeutic recommendations

J Neurol. 2008 Oct;255(10):1449-63. doi: 10.1007/s00415-008-0061-1. Epub 2008 Oct 29.


This review updates and extends earlier Consensus Reports related to current basic and escalating immunomodulatory treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent literature has been extracted for new evidence from randomized controlled trials, open treatment studies and reported expert opinion, both in original articles and reviews, and evaluates indications and safety issues based on published data. After data extraction from published full length publications and critically weighing the evidence and potential impact of the data, the review has been drafted and circulated within the National MS Societies and the European MS Platform to reach consensus within a very large group of European experts, combining evidence-based criteria and expert opinion where evidence is still incomplete. The review also outlines a few areas of controversy and delineates the need for future research.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Azathioprine / pharmacology
  • Azathioprine / therapeutic use
  • Europe
  • Glatiramer Acetate
  • Health Planning Guidelines*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / pharmacology
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use
  • Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Interferon-beta / pharmacology
  • Interferon-beta / therapeutic use
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mitoxantrone / pharmacology
  • Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use
  • Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • Multiple Sclerosis / therapy*
  • Natalizumab
  • Peptides / pharmacology
  • Peptides / therapeutic use
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Societies / standards


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Natalizumab
  • Peptides
  • Glatiramer Acetate
  • Interferon-beta
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Azathioprine