White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis within 72 h of treatment. CLA inhibited proliferation in the prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. DU145 and PC3 prostate tumor size and tumor cell proliferation were decreased in nude mice treated with mushroom extract, whereas tumor cell apoptosis was increased compared to pair-fed controls. Microarray analysis of tumors identified significant changes in gene expression in the mushroom-fed mice as compared to controls. Gene network analysis identified alterations in networks involved in cell death, growth and proliferation, lipid metabolism, the TCA cycle and immune response. The data provided by this study illustrate the anticancer potential of phytochemicals in mushroom extract both in vitro and in vivo and supports the recommendation of white button mushroom as a dietary component that may aid in the prevention of prostate cancer in men.