Therapeutic options in the management of intermediate-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer

BJU Int. 2009 Mar;103(6):726-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08094.x. Epub 2008 Oct 24.


Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers form a heterogeneous group of tumours with varying recurrence and progression rates. Recently low-, intermediate- and high-risk categories, based on tumour stage and grade, have been used to predict prognosis and guide treatment. Whilst the therapeutic options for the low- and high-risk groups are well defined, the optimal treatment for patients in the intermediate-risk group is unknown. We review current treatment options, recent advances and future developments in the treatment of patients with intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intravesical
  • Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • BCG Vaccine / adverse effects
  • BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • Mitomycin / therapeutic use*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • BCG Vaccine
  • Mitomycin