Objectives: Because of the known CYP3A4 inhibition by calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), we hypothesized that there might be a drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and dihydropyridines in patients with coronary artery disease.
Background: Clopidogrel is activated by CYP3A4, which also metabolizes CCBs of the dihydropyridine class.
Methods: Responsiveness to clopidogrel was assessed by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay and aggregometry in 200 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Results: The platelet reactivity index (PRI) (in the VASP assay, normal range 69% to 100%) was higher in patients receiving both clopidogrel and CCBs (61%) as compared with patients receiving clopidogrel without CCBs (48%). The absolute difference was 13% (95% confidence interval: 6% to 20%; p = 0.001), and the relative difference approached 21%. A decreased platelet inhibition by clopidogrel (PRI >69%) was seen in 40% of patients with concomitant CCB treatment and in 20% of patients without concomitant treatment (chi-square test, p = 0.008). Intake of CCB remained an independent predictor of reduced platelet inhibition by clopidogrel after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation was 30% higher in patients on concomitant CCB treatment compared with patients without CCBs (p = 0.046). Moreover, intake of CCBs was associated with adverse clinical outcome. In vitro incubation with CCBs (nimodipine, verapamil, amlodipine, and diltiazem) did not alter the PRI or the adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation of patients taking clopidogrel. This finding indicates that the negative effect occurs in vivo, conceivably at the level of the CYP3A4 cytochrome.
Conclusions: Coadministration of CCBs is associated with decreased platelet inhibition by clopidogrel.