Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of morbidity and mortality among young adults with chronic renal disease. Atherosclerotic structural changes as detected by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography preceed clinical findings by several decades. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is being used as a marker of early atherosclerosis. We determined the cIMT of common carotid artery (CCA) in 8 asymptomatic children on dialysis or 12 after renal transplantation for comparison with 30 healthy controls. This prospective study of 40 children showed a mean age of 13.5 years (range, 8 to 18). We evaluated cIMT, hemoglobin, serum creatinine levels, lipid profile, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The statistical analysis for variables with normal distribution was Student's t test. Parameters with a non-normal distribution were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney or Spearman correlation analysis with P < .05 considered statistically significant. The mean measurements of cIMT (mm) of both CCA were dialysis 0.450 +/- 0.042; transplant 0.467 +/- 0.033, and controls 0.380 +/- 0.009 (P < .03). The homa levels of 2.45 +/- 0.98 for dialysis and 1.8 +/- 0.62 for transplant, were both significantly higher than the control group (0.8 +/- 0.09; P < .01). The Ca x P product was higher in dialysis vs transplant group: 63.0 +/- 10.0 versus 46.2 +/- 2.2 (P < .03). The intact parathyroid hormone levels were 666.7 +/- 276.7 versus 44.2 +/- 2.8, respectively (P < .008). The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 129.0 +/- 23.1 versus 80.8 +/- 10.6, respectively (P < .04). The cIMT correlated with the duration of dialysis before transplantation. Changes in IMT can be detected by ultrasonography in early childhood in uremic patients. The etiology of atherosclerosis is multifactorial in children with end-stage renal disease. It seems possible to prevent or improve the factors related to cardiovascular risk in these patients.