Haplotype analysis of two X-chromosome STR clusters in the Pakistani population

Int J Legal Med. 2009 Jan;123(1):85-7. doi: 10.1007/s00414-008-0294-7. Epub 2008 Nov 15.


Haplotype analysis of closely associated markers has proven to be a powerful tool in kinship analysis especially when X-chromosome short tandem repeats fail to resolve uncertainty in relationship analysis. Microsatellites located on the X chromosome show stronger linkage disequilibrium compared with autosomal microsatellites; hence, it is necessary to estimate the haplotype frequencies directly from population studies as linkage disequilibrium is population-specific. Here, we describe five markers residing in two clusters; cluster I harboring three STR markers DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 and cluster II harboring two STR markers DXS7424-DXS101. A total of 302 male DNA samples of Pakistani descent were analyzed. Theoretically, 847 and 160 different combinations of haplotypes are possible in clusters I and II, but genotyping identified only 129 and 75 haplotypes, respectively. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was detected, except for the pair (DXS6801-DXS6789), consistent with results obtained with the cluster I in a German population. Our results demonstrate that 83% haplotypes of cluster I and 65% haplotypes of cluster II show <1% frequency in the Pakistani population. This strongly suggests that haplotypes of these two clusters provide a powerful tool for kinship testing and relationship investigations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Human, X*
  • DNA Fingerprinting*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Haplotypes*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pakistan
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences*


  • Genetic Markers