Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic activity. Previous studies have shown that Group I mGluRs are present in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), in which many visceral afferents terminate. Microinjection of selective Group I mGluR agonists into the NTS results in a depressor response and decrease in sympathetic nerve activity. There is, however, little evidence detailing which phenotypes of neurons within the NTS express Group I mGluRs. In brainstem slices, we performed immunohistochemical localization of Group I mGluRs and either glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform (GAD67), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Fluoro-Gold (FG, 2%; 15 nl) was microinjected in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) of the rat to retrogradely label NTS neurons that project to CVLM. Group I mGluRs were distributed throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the NTS and were found within most NTS subregions. The relative percentages of Group I mGluR expressing neurons colabeled with the different markers were FG (6.9+/-0.7) nNOS (5.6+/-0.9), TH (3.9+/-1.0), and GAD67 (3.1+/-1.4). The percentage of FG containing cells colabeled with Group I mGluR (13.6+/-2.0) was greater than the percent colabeled with GAD67 (3.1+/-0.5), nNOS (4.7+/-0.5), and TH (0.1+/-0.08). Cells triple labeled for FG, nNOS, and Group I mGluRs were identified in the NTS. Thus, these data provide an anatomical substrate by which Group I mGluRs could modulate activity of CVLM projecting neurons in the NTS.