With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, there have been substantial declines in both morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. However, data increasingly indicate that HIV-1-infected individuals are faced with accelerated rates of chronic diseases that afflict the general population such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as well as cardiovascular, liver, and kidney diseases. Furthermore, this population is exposed to a variety of adverse effects from long-term use of antiretroviral medications, which may cause clinically important renal toxicities. However, it often is challenging to distinguish antiretroviral-related renal toxicity from either direct effects of HIV-1 on the kidney or from a multitude of non-HIV-related kidney diseases. A timely and coordinated effort by the HIV primary provider and a nephrologist is likely to facilitate the evaluation of HIV-1-infected patients with new kidney problems.