Kidney disease in HIV-positive children

Semin Nephrol. 2008 Nov;28(6):585-94. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2008.09.001.


Before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, more than 40% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children experienced renal complications. In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 2.1 million children are infected with HIV-1. In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, young African children frequently died of AIDS-related complications before renal diseases could be manifested or diagnosed. As antiretroviral therapy has become more available, and their survival has increased, our experience in treating kidney disease in HIV-infected children has improved. This article discusses relevant clinical and pathologic findings related to kidney disease in HIV-infected children.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • HIV Seropositivity / complications*
  • HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy
  • HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / prevention & control
  • Morbidity / trends
  • South Africa / epidemiology
  • Survival Rate / trends


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents