Analytical challenges in doping control: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry, a promising option

J Chromatogr A. 2009 Apr 3;1216(14):2913-22. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.042. Epub 2008 Nov 1.


Doping control screening based on the enhanced resolution of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography hyphenated to time of flight mass spectrometer was investigated. The identification of anabolic agents (clenbuterol, norandrosterone, epimetendiol, two methyltestosterone metabolites and 3'-hydroxystanozolol) contained in a spiked urine sample (2ng/ml) was demonstrated. Special emphasis was given to 3'-hydroxystanozolol, mainly considering the difficulty in its detection. In contrast to conventional GC-MS approaches that must use single-ion monitoring, the GC x GC-TOFMS method enabled the identification of that metabolite through the deconvolution of the full mass spectrum and also resolved the co-eluted peaks of 3'-hydroxystanozolol and an endogenous component.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anabolic Agents / urine*
  • Doping in Sports*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Humans
  • Stanozolol / analogs & derivatives*
  • Stanozolol / urine
  • Substance Abuse Detection / methods*


  • Anabolic Agents
  • 3'-hydroxystanozolol
  • Stanozolol