The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children in a highly polluted urban region and a windfarm-green energy island

Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009 May;19(3):176-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2008.00945.x. Epub 2008 Nov 11.


Background: Children's developing teeth may be sensitive to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) was introduced to describe the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are associated frequently with affected incisors.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalance of MIH in children from the most industrialized and polluted region and the most green-energy island of Turkey.

Design: In September 2007, a retrospective study was initiated in two elementary schools: one, a group of children (N = 153) who fitted the criteria from Tavsancil, Kocaeli (N = 109) and the other from Bozcaada island, Canakkale (N = 44). The soil samples were collected from selected regions in order to determine the contamination levels in a heavily industrialized area and a non-industrialized area.

Results: Prevalance of MIH in children in Bozcaada island was 9.1%, while prevalance of MIH was 9.2% in Tavsancil. The PCDD/F levels in soil samples collected from Bozcaada and Tavsancil were determined as 1,12 and 8,4 I-TEQ ng/kg dry soil, respectively (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In this preliminary study with a small study population, prevalence of MIH did not seem to be associated with the levels of PCDD/Fs in the environment.

MeSH terms

  • Benzofurans / analysis
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel / pathology
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated
  • Environmental Pollution / statistics & numerical data*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Medical History Taking
  • Molar / pathology
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / analogs & derivatives
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / analysis
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Rural Health / statistics & numerical data*
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Urban Health / statistics & numerical data*


  • Benzofurans
  • Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
  • Soil Pollutants