Immunolabelling for synaptophysin and chromogranin A, two polypeptides associated with small clear and large dense core synaptic vesicles respectively, has been performed on tissue sections of the temporal cortex in Alzheimer's disease in combination with anti-A4 amyloid labelling. The dystrophic neurites in many senile plaques were observed to be labelled by the anti-synaptophysin or anti-chromogranin A antibodies. Some diffuse amyloid deposits, demonstrated by antibodies against synthetic amyloid A4 peptides, were associated with a punctuate increase in synaptophysin or chromogranin A immunoreactivity. The labelling of dystrophic plaque neurites may reflect the accumulation in these processes of synaptic vesicles or material derived from them. We suggest also that the punctuate increase in synaptophysin and chromogranin A immunoreactivities associated with some A4 amyloid deposits may be an early event reflecting neuronal dysfunction.