Nuclear receptor (NR) coactivators are recruited to DNA by NRs, potentiating NR-dependent gene transcription. To obtain the complexity of NR-mediated gene regulation with a finite number of coactivators, the molecular properties of coactivators are dynamically modulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in response to external stimuli. PTMs can regulate the molecular interactions of coactivators with transcription factors and other coactivators, in addition to their cellular location, protein stability, conformation and enzymatic activity. Therefore, dynamic regulation of the molecular properties of coactivators by PTMs allows for the complexity of NR-dependent gene expression and influences the regulation of NR-mediated physiological processes. This review focuses on recent progress in our understanding of how coactivator PTMs influence NR-mediated gene transcription and addresses their biological relevance.