Development and validation of IMPACT-S, an ICF-based questionnaire to measure activities and participation

J Rehabil Med. 2008 Aug;40(8):620-7. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0223.


Objective: IMPACT-S is the screener part of the ICF Measure of Participation and ACTivities questionnaire. IMPACT-S consists of 33 items in 9 scales, reflecting the 9 activity and participation chapters of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The reliability and validity of IMPACT-S as an independent brief measure of activities and participation was examined.

Design: Repeated administration of a postal questionnaire.

Patients: Road accident victims were recruited through several Dutch hospitals and rehabilitation centres. A total of 276 patients participated and 197 took part in both measurements.

Methods: Examination of test-retest reliability, reproducibility and construct validity. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS-II) was included as criterion measure for concurrent validity.

Results: Types of main injury were fractures (38%), trauma?tic brain injury (37%), spinal cord injury (13%), whiplash (9%) and other (3%). Mean time after injury was 2.2 years. Internal consistency of IMPACT-S was satisfying for all 9 domains (0.75-0.89) and excellent for the total score (0.96). Test-retest reliability was good at item level (0.44-0.72), domain level (0.72-0.92) and total score (0.94). Strong correlations (0.61-0.88) between IMPACT-S and corresponding WHODAS-II scores were found.

Conclusion: IMPACT-S is a reliable and valid generic measure of activity limitations and participation restrictions that fits the ICF.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Traffic / psychology
  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Disability Evaluation*
  • Disabled Persons / classification
  • Disabled Persons / psychology
  • Disabled Persons / rehabilitation*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Wounds and Injuries / rehabilitation*