Real-time investigation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO, HbR) dynamics has been difficult until recently due to limited spatial and temporal resolution of techniques like laser Doppler flowmetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The combination of laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and multispectral reflectance imaging (MSRI) yields high-resolution spatiotemporal maps of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in response to functional cortical activation. During acute focal cerebral ischemia, changes in HbO and HbR are much larger than in functional activation, resulting in the failure of the Beer-Lambert approximation to yield accurate results. We describe the use of simultaneous LSF and MSRI, using a nonlinear Monte Carlo fitting technique, to record rapid changes in CBF, HbO, HbR, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during acute focal cerebral ischemia induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) and reperfusion. This technique captures CBF and CMRO(2) changes during hemodynamic and metabolic events with high temporal and spatial resolution through the intact skull and demonstrates the utility of simultaneous LSF and MSRI in mouse models of cerebrovascular disease.