Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce

Plant Biotechnol J. 2009 Jan;7(1):106-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2008.00379.x. Epub 2008 Oct 13.


Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antiporters / genetics
  • Antiporters / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Calcium, Dietary / analysis*
  • Cation Transport Proteins / genetics
  • Cation Transport Proteins / metabolism*
  • Food, Fortified
  • Food, Genetically Modified*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Lettuce / genetics*
  • Lettuce / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / metabolism
  • RNA, Plant / genetics
  • Taste*
  • Transformation, Genetic


  • Antiporters
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • RNA, Plant
  • calcium-hydrogen antiporters