Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a ubiquitous Gram-negative non-fermenting rod, recently characterized as an emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Its pathogenic potential and prevalent transmission routes are still unclear. This study investigated the PFGE genetic pattern and antimicrobial resistance profile of 42 A. xylosoxidans isolates obtained over 4 years from the respiratory tract of 22 CF patients. By genotypic analysis, 31 isolates were attributed to 8 distinct PFGE patterns (A-H), whereas 11 isolates were not typable because their DNA was not restricted by XbaI and DraI restriction enzymes. The majority of the isolates showed multidrug resistance; imipenem and piperacillin were the most active drugs. During the course of A. xylosoxidans chronic infection forced expiratory volume and body mass index values were not significantly lowered. The demonstration of widespread antibiotic resistance underscores the importance of antibiogram-directed therapy. Our data suggest that in some cases the infection may have been acquired from other patients or from a common contaminated source. Further epidemiological studies may be important for the design and implementation of prophylactic measures in CF centers.