Analysis of the relationship of leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to metabolic syndrome in lean, overweight, and obese young females

Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Feb;7(1):17-22. doi: 10.1089/met.2008.0045.


Objective: Over the last decade there has been a steady rise in obesity and co-morbidity, but little is known about the rate of metabolic dysfunction among young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Various factors have been implicated as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to the metabolic syndrome components in lean, overweight, and obese young females.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 69 apparently healthy young females, who were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) into three groups: lean (<or=25), overweight (>25 and <30), and obese (>or=30). Estimated biomarkers were: leptin, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity [hs]-CRP, uric acid, blood sugar, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also measured.

Results: Serum leptin, hs-CRP, insulin, and uric acid increased significantly (p < 0.01) with increased BMI. Only one significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the biomarkers and the metabolic syndrome components was found in lean subjects (leptin vs. waist circumference r = 0.48) as opposed to six in the obese group (hs-CRP vs. waist circumference and systolic blood pressure [SBP], r = 0.45 and r = -0.41, respectively; insulin vs. diastolic blood pressure [DBP], r = 0.47; adiponectin vs. blood sugar, r = -0.44; and uric acid vs. waist circumference and TG, r = 0.5 and r = 0.51, respectively).

Conclusion: Estimation of the levels of studied biomarkers could be an important tool for early detection of metabolic syndrome before the appearance of its frank components. Uric acid seems to be the most reliable biomarker to identify obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Leptin / blood*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Obesity / blood*
  • Overweight / blood*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Thinness / blood*
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Up-Regulation
  • Uric Acid / blood*
  • Waist Circumference
  • Young Adult


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Uric Acid
  • C-Reactive Protein