Accelerating the annotation of sparse named entities by dynamic sentence selection

BMC Bioinformatics. 2008 Nov 19;9 Suppl 11(Suppl 11):S8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-S11-S8.


Background: Previous studies of named entity recognition have shown that a reasonable level of recognition accuracy can be achieved by using machine learning models such as conditional random fields or support vector machines. However, the lack of training data (i.e. annotated corpora) makes it difficult for machine learning-based named entity recognizers to be used in building practical information extraction systems.

Results: This paper presents an active learning-like framework for reducing the human effort required to create named entity annotations in a corpus. In this framework, the annotation work is performed as an iterative and interactive process between the human annotator and a probabilistic named entity tagger. Unlike active learning, our framework aims to annotate all occurrences of the target named entities in the given corpus, so that the resulting annotations are free from the sampling bias which is inevitable in active learning approaches.

Conclusion: We evaluate our framework by simulating the annotation process using two named entity corpora and show that our approach can reduce the number of sentences which need to be examined by the human annotator. The cost reduction achieved by the framework could be drastic when the target named entities are sparse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Databases, Bibliographic
  • Information Storage and Retrieval / methods*
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods*
  • Terminology as Topic*