Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004)

Am J Cardiol. 2008 Dec 1;102(11):1540-4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.06.067. Epub 2008 Sep 24.

Abstract

This cross-sectional study examined the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) using serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in adults with CVDs using data from NHANES 2001 to 2004. Serum 25(OH)D levels were divided into 3 categories (> or =30, 20 to 29, and <20 ng/ml), and hypovitaminosis D was defined as vitamin D <30 ng/ml. Of 8,351 adults who had 25(OH)D measured, mean 25(OH)D was 24.3 ng/ml, and the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 74%. The burden of CVDs increased with lower 25(OH)D categories, with 5.3%, 6.7%, and 7.3% coronary heart disease; 1.5%, 2.4%, and 3.2% heart failure; 2.5%, 2.0%, and 3.2% stroke; and 3.6%, 5.0%, and 7.7% peripheral arterial disease. Across all CVDs, hypovitaminosis D was more common in blacks than Hispanics or whites. Compared with persons at low risk for CVDs (68%), it was more prevalent in those at high risk (75%; odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.67), with coronary heart disease (77%; OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.91), and both coronary heart disease and heart failure (89%; OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.58 to 7.84) after controlling for age, race, and gender. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D was highly prevalent in US adults with CVDs, particularly those with both coronary heart disease and heart failure.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Coronary Artery Disease / complications
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / complications
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Vitamin D
  • C-Reactive Protein