The epidemiology of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke is an ongoing exploration to identify risk factors that continue to expand with the advent of technological advancements and preventative medical practices. Identification of risk factors that can or cannot be modified is a crucial step in determining stroke risk. Many of the modifiable risk factors are well established, and specific interventions to reduce stroke risk have been established. Some risk factors are less established, and intervention to reduce risk is yet to be determined by evidence-based medicine. Data from ongoing randomized clinical trials continue to enhance our ability to prevent a first stroke.