Background & aims: Pregnant women with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes compared with pregnant women without these disorders. We estimated the occurrence of pregnancies in women with CD and UC in the United States and compared outcomes between these patients and the non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) obstetric population.
Methods: By using the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we estimated the number of obstetric hospitalizations, deliveries, and Cesarean deliveries in women with CD, UC, and those without IBD. Outcomes included prevalences of Cesarean delivery, venous thromboembolism (VTE), blood transfusion, and malnutrition.
Results: Of an estimated 4.21 million deliveries, 2372 and 1368 occurred in women with CD and UC, respectively. Compared with the non-IBD population, adjusted odds of Cesarean delivery were higher in women with CD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-2.04) and UC (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.66). The risk of VTE was substantially higher in women with CD (aOR, 6.12; 95% CI, 2.91-12.9) and UC (aOR, 8.44; 95% CI, 3.71-19.2) vs the non-IBD population. Blood transfusions occurred more frequently in women with CD (aOR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.51-5.26), whereas protein-calorie malnutrition occurred more frequently in women with CD (aOR, 20.0; 95% CI, 8.8-45.4) or UC (aOR, 60.8; 95% CI, 28.2-131.0).
Conclusions: Adverse pregnancy and maternal outcomes occur more frequently in women with IBD. Measures should be undertaken to reduce maternal complications such as VTE and malnutrition in women with these disorders.