Use of web and in-person survey modes to gather data from young adults on sex and drug use: an evaluation of cost, time, and survey error based on a randomized mixed-mode design

Eval Rev. 2009 Apr;33(2):138-58. doi: 10.1177/0193841X08326463. Epub 2008 Nov 24.


In a randomized test of mixed-mode data collection strategies, 386 participants in the Raising Healthy Children (RHC) Project were either (a) asked to complete a survey via the Internet and later offered the opportunity to complete the survey in person or (b) first offered an in-person survey, with the Web follow-up. The Web-first condition resulted in cost savings although the overall completion rates for the 2 conditions were similar. On average, in-person-first condition participants completed surveys earlier in the field period than Web-first condition participants. Based on intent-to-treat analyses, little evidence of condition effects on response bias, with respect to rates or levels of reported behavior, was found.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Data Collection / methods*
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Internet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Research / statistics & numerical data*
  • Research Design
  • Sexual Behavior / statistics & numerical data*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • United States
  • Young Adult


  • Illicit Drugs