Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious and potentially lethal complication of ovulation induction. We report herein a case with OHSS treated by serial vaginal paracentesis. A 31-year-old patient was hospitalized due to severe OHSS after in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer. Transvaginal drainage was performed with a standard 17-gauge IVF needle connected to a vacuum pump through a drainage set in nine courses. We removed 45 liters of ascitic fluid in total and 7.5 liters of ascitic fluid in one course, leading to improvement of the patient's condition and laboratory parameters. In conclusion, removal of ascites up to 7.5 liters on one occasion and 45 liters in total by serial vaginal paracentesis may be performed in patients with severe OHSS.