Delivery of aerosolized medication to intubated babies

Pediatr Pulmonol. 1991;10(2):136-41. doi: 10.1002/ppul.1950100217.


We studied the delivery of aerosolized cromolyn sodium to intubated babies, and evaluated the effect of changes in delivery techniques. In addition, we compared these results with an in vitro model of aerosol delivery. Cromolyn sodium was used as a marker because once the drug is absorbed, it is excreted unchanged, approximately 50% in urine and 50% in bile. We demonstrated that, in vitro, a conventional, jet-type nebulizer aerosolized 20.5% of a test dose of cromolyn, and only 5.5% of the dose was recovered after passage through 60 cm of ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube adapter. This increased to 44.5% nebulized and 19% recovered when the volume nebulized was increased from 2 mL to 5 mL. A submicronic nebulizer aerosolized 40% and delivered 33.5% of the test dose. A 20 mg dose of nebulized cromolyn sodium was used as a test dose in infants, after which urine was collected for 4 hours. Forty-three urine samples were collected, after the delivery of cromolyn test doses, from nine babies (16-128 days old) intubated for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Both the jet and submicronic nebulizers were tested in two positions: 1) in place of the ventilator humidifier, and 2) at the endotracheal tube adapter. There were no statistically significant differences in cromolyn delivery for any system configuration. In all situations, means of less than 0.1% of the test dose were recovered in the urine. We estimated that in all cases, less than 1% of the test dose (approximately 50-100 micrograms of cromolyn) had been deposited in the lung. These results show that although the submicronic nebulizer aerosolized cromolyn more efficiently, no additional cromolyn could be detected in infants. We speculate that a significant portion of the smaller particles are exhaled.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation*
  • Cromolyn Sodium / administration & dosage
  • Cromolyn Sodium / urine
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Infant
  • Intubation, Intratracheal*
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers


  • Cromolyn Sodium