The association between psychiatric diagnosis and violent re-offending in adult offenders in the community

BMC Psychiatry. 2008 Nov 25:8:92. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-92.


Background: High rates of repeat offending are common across nations that are socially and culturally different. Although psychiatric disorders are believed to be risk factors for violent reoffending, the available evidence is sparse and liable to bias.

Method: We conducted a historical cohort study in Sweden of a selected sample of 4828 offenders given community sentences who were assessed by a psychiatrist during 1988-2001, and followed up for an average of 5 years for first violent offence, death, or emigration, using information from national registers. Hazard ratios for violent offending were calculated by Cox regression models.

Results: Nearly a third of the sample (n = 1506 or 31.3%) offended violently during follow-up (mean duration: 4.8 years). After adjustment for socio-demographic and criminal history variables, substance use disorders (hazard ratio 1.97, 95% CI, 1.40-2.77) and personality disorders (hazard ratio 1.71, 1.20-2.44) were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent offending. No other diagnoses were related to recidivism risk. Adding information on diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders to data recorded on age, sex, and criminal history improved only minimally the prediction of violent offending.

Conclusion: Diagnoses of substance use and personality disorders are associated with the risk of subsequent violent offending in community offenders about as strongly as are its better documented demographic and criminal history risk factors. Despite this, assessment of such disorders in addition to demographic and criminal history factors enhances only minimally the prediction of violent offending in the community.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bipolar Disorder / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Crime / psychology*
  • Demography
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / epidemiology
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Personality Assessment
  • Psychotic Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Recurrence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Schizophrenia / epidemiology
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Violence / psychology*