Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) use may be associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 32,757 renal transplant recipients using the United States Renal Data System kidney transplant files for the incidence, prognosis, and clinical features associated with PML occurring after kidney transplant. Subjects were transplanted from January 1, 2000 to July 31, 2004 and followed through December 31, 2004. The incidence density of PML in MMF users was 14.4 cases/100,000 person-years at risk versus 0 for non-MMF users (P=0.11) by log rank test. Factors significantly associated with PML were BK virus infection (22.2% vs. 1.1%), pretransplant transfusion (75% vs. 34%), panel reactive antibody more than 20% (56% vs. 14%), and use of antirejection medications in the first year (33% vs. 9.2%), all P less than 0.05. PML is rare in the renal transplant population. There was no significant association between PML and MMF, but MMF use in this cohort is too high to accurately assess an association.