Hip osteoarthritis is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in older adults and may result in decreased mobility and quality of life. Although the presentation of hip osteoarthritis varies, surgical management is required when the disease is severe, longstanding, and unresponsive to nonoperative treatments. For stakeholders to plan for the expected increased demand for surgical procedures related to hip osteoarthritis, including arthroplasty, it is important to first understand its prevalence. We conducted a systematic review by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify recent English language articles reporting on the prevalence of radiographic primary hip osteoarthritis in the general adult population; references including studies and primary studies from previous systematic reviews were also searched. This strategy yielded 23 studies reporting 39 estimates of overall prevalence ranging from 0.9% to 27% with a mean of 8.0% and a standard deviation of 7.0%. Heterogeneity was noted in study populations, eligibility criteria, age and gender distribution, type of radiographs, and method of diagnosis. Although the association between radiographic hip osteoarthritis and the need for eventual surgical management is still unclear, this study supports assertions that hip osteoarthritis is a prevalent condition whose treatment will continue to place important demands on health services.