Quantitative analysis of 4468 uroliths retrieved from farm animals, exotic species, and wildlife submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center: 1981 to 2007

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009 Jan;39(1):65-78. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.09.005.


Knowledge of the mineral composition of uroliths in various species of animals can help veterinarians predict the mineral composition of stones in vivo. This information is important because dissolution of existing uroliths, or minimizing further growth of uroliths in situ, is dependent on knowledge of the mineral composition of uroliths. With this objective in mind, this report summarizes the results of quantitative mineral analysis of uroliths retrieved from 4468 animals sent to the Minnesota Urolith Center. It also encompasses the most extensive database about uroliths from animals other than domesticated dogs and cats found in the literature.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Animals, Domestic
  • Animals, Wild
  • Animals, Zoo
  • Female
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Species Specificity
  • Urinary Calculi / chemistry*
  • Urinary Calculi / classification
  • Urinary Calculi / epidemiology
  • Urinary Calculi / prevention & control*