The present study used a new 16S rRNA-based microarray with probes for over 300 bacterial species to better define the bacterial profiles of healthy root surfaces and root caries (RC) in the elderly. Supragingival plaque was collected from 20 healthy subjects (Controls) and from healthy and carious roots and carious dentin from 21 RC subjects (Patients). Collectively, 179 bacterial species and species groups were detected. A higher bacterial diversity was observed in Controls than in Patients. Lactobacillus casei/paracasei/rhamnosus and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus were notably associated with most RC samples. Streptococcus mutans was detected more frequently in the infected dentin than in the other samples, but the difference was not significant. Actinomyces was found more frequently in Controls. Thus, species other than Actinomyces and S. mutans may play a role as pathogens of RC. The results from this study were in general agreement with those of our previous study based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing.