Background: Abnormal left ventricular (LV) deformation is an independent predictor of poor cardiovascular outcome in end-stage renal disease. Studies in early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not been performed despite the known graded inverse relationship between glomerular filtration rate and adverse cardiovascular events.
Methods: Forty patients with CKD stage 2 or 3 and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes and 30 healthy controls underwent Doppler myocardial imaging for longitudinal deformation (strain/strain rate).
Results: There were no differences in LV ejection fraction or systolic tissue Doppler velocities between patients with CKD and controls. In CKD, mean global strain (-15% +/- 4% vs -17% +/- 3%, P <.01) and mean global strain rate were reduced compared with controls (-0.88 +/- 0.16 vs -1.06 +/- 0.31, P <.05). Peak systolic strain was reduced in the basal lateral (-13.9% +/- 0.9% vs -17.9% +/- 1.02%, P <.01), basal septal (-17.1% +/- 0.8% vs -19.4% +/- 0.77%, P <.05), and mid-septal (-16.4% +/- 0.78% vs -18.9% +/- 0.88%, P <.05) walls with more basal postsystolic shortening (P <.01). Peak systolic strain rate was reduced in the basal lateral, mid-lateral, and mid-septal segments (P <.05).
Conclusion: Conventional measures of systolic function are preserved in early-stage CKD, but systolic deformation is abnormal, consistent with an adverse cardiovascular prognosis.