Determination of arsenic levels in lake water, sediment, and foodstuff from selected area of Sindh, Pakistan: estimation of daily dietary intake

Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jan;47(1):242-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.009. Epub 2008 Nov 13.


The aim of present study was to develop a database of arsenic (As) in lake water, ground water, sediment, soil, vegetables, grain crops and fish to evaluate the potential human health risks posed by higher level of As, in south east part of Sindh, Pakistan during 2005-2007. The total concentration of As in various samples under study was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS). The reliability and accuracy of technique was checked by different certified reference materials. The concentration of As in lake and ground water samples exceeded the WHO guideline values. The concentration of As in lake sediment and agricultural soil samples ranged between 11.3-55.8 and 8.7-46.2 mg/kg while acid soluble As (acetic acid 0.11 mol/L) was observed in the range of 1.48-3.54 and 0.34-3.78 mg/kg, respectively. It was observed that the leafy vegetables (spinach, coriander and peppermint) contain higher As levels (0.90-1.20 mg/kg) as compared to ground vegetables (0.048-0.25) and grain crops (0.248-0.367 mg/kg) on dried weight basis. The estimated daily intake of total As in the diet was 9.7-12.2 microg/kg body weight/day.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arsenic / analysis*
  • Diet*
  • Edible Grain / chemistry
  • Fishes
  • Food Analysis
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Fresh Water / chemistry*
  • Geologic Sediments / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Pakistan
  • Vegetables / chemistry


  • Arsenic