Gender nonconformity as a target of prejudice, discrimination, and violence against LGB individuals

J LGBT Health Res. 2007;3(3):55-71. doi: 10.1080/15574090802093562.


Research into antigay violence has been limited by a lack of attention to issues of gender presentation. Understanding gender nonconformity is important for addressing antigay prejudice and hate crimes. We assessed experiences of gender-nonconformity-related prejudice among 396 Black, Latino, and White lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals recruited from diverse community venues in New York City. We assessed the prevalence and contexts of prejudice-related life events and everyday discrimination using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Gender nonconformity had precipitated major prejudice events for 9% of the respondents and discrimination instances for 19%. Women were more likely than men to report gender-nonconformity-related discrimination but there were no differences by other demographic characteristics. In analysis of events narratives, we show that gender nonconformity prejudice is often intertwined with antigay prejudice. Our results demonstrate that both constructs should be included when addressing prejudice and hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals and communities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bisexuality*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Homosexuality, Female*
  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • New York City
  • Prejudice*
  • Social Alienation
  • Violence / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult