Screening studies indicate a prevalence of celiac disease (CD) of up to 1% in populations of European ancestry, yet the majority of cases remain undiagnosed. One of the common complication of CD is intestinal osteopathy or osteoporosis [bone mineral density (BMD) based diagnosis]. Available data regarding the prevalence of CD in the patients with osteoporosis are limited and controversial. The objective of this study was to perform serological testing to screen for CD among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We studied 192 postmenopausal women with low BMD with a mean age of 62.75 +/- 8.58 years. Among the patients, a total of 137 had osteoporosis and 55 had osteopenia. Venous blood samples were obtained for serological screening of CD and evaluation of bone metabolism. The serological screening protocol consisted of determining serum level of IgA antigliadin antibodies (AGA), IgG-AGA, IgA endomysial antibody (EMA), IgG-EMA. Subjects who were positive for both IgA-AGA and IgA-EMA were classified as having CD. Bone metabolism was evaluated by serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 25 (OH) vitamin D, osteocalcin, serum C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I levels. Of the 192 patients evaluated, only one (0.5%) was found to have positive for both IgA-AGA and IgA EMA tests and accepted as having CD. Prevelance of CD in postmenopausal women with low BMD (0.5%) did not differ from prevelance of CD in normal healthy population (0.3-1%). BMD values at proximal femur level were significantly lower in IgA-AGA (+) patients when compared to IgA-AGA (-) patients. However, the mean levels of bone metabolism markers were found similiar in both IgA-AGA (+) and (-) patients. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that there is no need for routine screening of CD in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.