Epithelial to mesenchymal transition during gastrulation: an embryological view

Dev Growth Differ. 2008 Dec;50(9):755-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-169X.2008.01070.x.


Gastrulation is a developmental process to generate the mesoderm and endoderm from the ectoderm, of which the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is generally considered to be a critical component. Due to increasing evidence for the involvement of EMT in cancer biology, a renewed interest is seen in using in vivo models, such as gastrulation, for studying molecular mechanisms underlying EMT. The intersection of EMT and gastrulation research promises novel mechanistic insight, but also creates some confusion. Here we discuss, from an embryological perspective, the involvement of EMT in mesoderm formation during gastrulation in triploblastic animals. Both gastrulation and EMT exhibit remarkable variations in different organisms, and no conserved role for EMT during gastrulation is evident. We propose that a 'broken-down' model, in which these two processes are considered to be a collective sum of separately regulated steps, may provide a better framework for studying molecular mechanisms of the EMT process in gastrulation, and in other developmental and pathological settings.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryo, Mammalian / metabolism
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism
  • Epithelium / metabolism*
  • Gastrulation*
  • Humans
  • Mesoderm / metabolism*