An increasing body of evidence has revealed that interventions performed during resuscitation of extremely-low-gestational-age neonates (ELGANs) may have a direct influence on the immediate survival and also on long-term morbidity. It has been proposed that interventions in the delivery room and/or hypothermia could trigger changes constitutive of chronic lung disease. New approaches in the first minutes of life using more gentle parameters of intervention are being studied. Thus, titrating inspiratory fraction of oxygen, the use of non-invasive ventilation to reduce trauma to the lung, the use of polyethylene/polyurethane wrapping to avoid hypothermia and delaying cord clamping altogether constitute promising initiatives. The first minutes of life are a valuable window for intervention. However, whilst these practice changes make sense and there are emerging data to support them, further evidence including long-term follow up is needed to definitively change resuscitation procedures in ELGANs.
(c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.