Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). Retrospective clinical study in Greek children. I. Prevalence and defect characteristics

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008 Dec;9(4):200-6. doi: 10.1007/BF03262636.


Aim: This was to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of MIH in a group of Greek children.

Methods: During the years 2003--2005, all MIH cases diagnosed according to the recently set criteria were selected from the new patients clinic of a Community Dental Centre for Children (Athens). Age, gender and teeth involved were recorded. The severity of MIH was determined collectively by dividing the affected teeth in two groups; a) mild defect (demarcated opacities) and b) moderate/severe defect (enamel breakdown and atypical restorations). Evaluation of the distribution of the affected teeth within MIH cases was performed in a separate group of 225 affected children aged 8-12 years with their entire 12 'index' teeth erupted.

Results: From the 3,518, 5.5 to 12 year old children that were examined, there were 360 (10.2%) children with MIH, 211 (58.6%) females and 149 (41.4%) males, with 1,926 affected teeth, 1,231 molars and 695 incisors. In the molars group, maxillary molars were more frequently affected (87.8/90.3%) than mandibular (81.7/82.2%). In the central incisor group, maxillary teeth were also more frequently affected (50/55%) than mandibular (24.4/25%), while laterals were the least affected. In all there were 37.9% molars with moderate/severe defects as compared with 4.9% incisors, the remaining 62.1% and 95.1% respectively being mild. The various associations between the affected teeth were evaluated in the sub-group of 225 MIH children with all 'index' teeth erupted (1,286 affected teeth, 776 molars and 510 incisors), with mean number of affected teeth per child being 5.7; separately for molars 3.4 and for incisors 2.2. In these cases 28.4% of the children had only molars affected and 71.6% had both molars and incisors. In descending order the associations of affected teeth more frequently found were: 4 molars/2 incisors (23.5%), 4 molars/4 incisors (16.8%), 4 molars alone (15.1%) and 2 molars alone (9.7%), the remaining being much less.

Statistical analysis: As age increased the clinical severity of the affected teeth became more prevalent (p=0.0001), and when the total number of affected teeth was assessed the likelihood of having severe defect was also increased (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of the defect in the present study was 10.2% with maxillary teeth being more frequently affected. Severity increased with age. Mild defects were much more frequent, particularly in incisors. The total number of teeth affected and the most frequently found associations were, 4 molars/2 incisors, 4 molars/4 incisors, 4 molars alone and 2 molars alone.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / classification
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Greece / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology*
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Molar / pathology*
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tooth Demineralization / classification
  • Tooth Demineralization / epidemiology*